The history of Beijing

Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian, Beijing

Figure 1.Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian, Beijing

Beijing is the capital of China, the world’s renowned cultural and historical city, and China’s political, economic, cultural and transportation center. It has a splendid cultural and artistic heritage, and retains many scenic spots and cultural attractions.

700 thousand years ago, the original population tribes – “Peking Man” appeared in Beijing Zhoukoudian. Beijing was first called Ji in in historical records. Ji is a state of the Western Zhou Dynasty in the north of China, during the mid Spring and Autumn period, Yan state annexed Ji state, and moved the capital to Ji City.

Sculptures of Yuan Dynasty City Wall Relic Park

Figure 2.Sculptures of Yuan Dynasty City Wall Relic Park

In the year 938, Ji city became the capital of Liao, was renamed Nanjing, also known as Yanjing. A century later, Jin State destroyed Liao State, in 1153 moved the capital to Yanjing, and renamed it ZhongDu. In 1215, the Mongolian occupied ZhongDu, in 1267 Kublai Khan  constructed XinCheng in the northeastern suburbs , which is the Italian traveler Marco Polo called “unparalleled City in the word”–Yuan Da Du in his travels. Since then, Beijing has replaced the status of Chang’an, Luoyang, Nanjing and other ancient capital, became China’s political center, and been extended to the Ming and Qing dynasties.

The Lugouqiao Bridge, a witness to the July 7 Incident of 1937

Figure 3.The Lugouqiao Bridge, a witness to the July 7 Incident of 1937

On October 10, 1911, the Revolution of 1911 broke out, in February 1912 , the Qing emperor was forced to abdicate, thus, the China’s last feudal dynasty collapsed, Beijing’s history as the empire capital ended. 30 years since then,successive years of tangled warfare among warloads , the Beijing city experienced the reign of terror. In 1937, the 77 Incident broke out, the Japanese army invaded Beijing and occupied Beijing for 8 years.

Mao Zedong announced the establishment of the People's Republic of China on the Tiananmen Gate on October 1, 1949

Figure 4. Mao Zedong announced the establishment of the People’s Republic of China

on the Tiananmen Gate on October 1, 1949

On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong announced the establishment of the People’s Republic of China on the Tiananmen Gate. As the capital of new China, Beijing has opened a new page. On August 8, 2008, Beijing successfully held the 29th Summer Olympic Games, the world appreciates the charm of Beijing once again.

The 2008 Beijing Olympics Opening Ceremony

Figure 5.The 2008 Beijing Olympics Opening Ceremony

Beijing is ancient, but also a new city shining rejuvenated charming.

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